Mutual UFO Network
Holidays and Birthday Cards
JOIN MUFON or RENEW
Field Investigator Manual
Books / Publications
Field Investigator Merchandise
You are here:
Choose a sub category:
Price: Low to High
Price: High to Low
10 per page
20 per page
40 per page
60 per page
100 per page
PROCEEDINGS BUNDLE 2012 AND 2013
SPECIAL PRICE $50. SAVE $15 BY BUYING BOTH YEARS PROCEEDINGS AS A BUNDLE.
It is a compendium of all of the Symposium Presentations.
2012, August 2-5 Cincinnati, OH
Featuring: Nick Pope, T.L.Keller, Geraldine Stith, Travis Walton, Kathleen Marden, George Filer, Thomas Reed, Donald Schmidt, Stanton Friedman
2013, July 18-21, Las Vegas, NV
Featuring: Ted Peters, Albert A. Harrison, Robert Powell, Ron Westrum, Dr. Steven Greer, David Jacobs, Don Donderi, Paola Leopizzi Harris, Eric Davis, Debbie Ziegelmeyer
Proceedings bundle -2010,2011,2012
Personal UFO Encounters while in the Air Force
Linda Moulton Howe & John Burroughs
: Update December 1980 FRA Bentwaters; Telepathic Lights
: Drawn in Stone - Cosmic Hints of the Petroglyphs
: The Conundrum of Alien Abduction
: A.D. (After Disclosure) Outlining the Contours of Our Society After the Great Change
Mysterious Landscape; A Personal Investigation of the Crop Circle Phenomenon
: UFO's - 101
: Len Stringfield and Crash Retrieval History
Roswell On Trial; Witnesses Speak out
: Bombshell UFO Case Files Revealed
: Mars the Living Planet
Linda Moulton Howe
: E.T.s, Time Travelers and Self-Activating Machines
E.T.s: Time Travel Is a Fact
: Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion: The B-2, Project Skyvault, and Superluminal Spacetravel
Dr. Tom Alexander:
The Federal Government and Military Response to ET Contact
John Greenewald, Jr.:
Master of Ceremonies
Are Human-ET Hybrids In Our Future?
How will full contact impact on our Science and Society?
: A Secret Space Program: From Rumor to Reality to After Disclosure
Are We Ready for Alien Contact?
ET Contact: The Implications for Post Contact Advancements in Science and Technology
Will ETI Contact Put an End to our World’s Religions?
2013 MUFON Symposium Proceedings
List Price: $35.00
You save $5.00!
This is the 2013 MUFON Symposium Proceedings. It is a compendium of all of the Symposium Presentations.
2012 Symposium Proceedings
List Price: $30.00
This is the official 2012 Symposium Proceedings Volume
Nick Pope: First Contact: An Invitation to Join the Galactic Federation, or War of the Worlds?
T.L.Keller: Extraterrestrials: Friends or Foes? Or...Trading Partners?
Kathleen Marden: Fire in The Sky Then and Now: An Update
George Filer: They Came to Earth Thousands of Years Ago....They are still with us....
Thomas Reed: UFO: Friend or Foe?
Donald Schmitt: The Balloon from Roswell Which Caused a Panic in Pentagon
Stanton Friedman: Aliens: Love them or Hate them?
2011 Symposium Proceedings
List Price: $35.00
You save $15.00!
MUFON 2008 International UFO Symposium Proceedings "UFOs - A Worldwide Phenomenon"
Nick Pope: Britain's X-Files
Leslie Kean: An inside look at the November, 2007 International Press Conference and at the latest developments in the NASA lawsuit
Wilfried De Brouwer: A UFO Wave over Belgium
Dr. Richard Haines: Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon and Aviation Safety
Don Ledger: Pilots Encounters over Canada
Farah Yurdozu: Historic and Current UFO Cases in Turkey
Jeronimo Flores and Victor Camacho: The Latest UFO Investigations in Mexico
Ted Roe: Resolving the Current Under-Reporting Bias of Pilots
Dr. Anthony Choy: Extraordinary Videos of UFOs in Peru
Larry Lemke: Flying Disc Creates Hole in the Cloud at O'Hare Airport
George Knapp: Science Confronts Unexplained Events at the Skinwalker Ranch
John Greenwald: Host of the BlackVault.com
2007 Symposium Proceedings
2007: "An Estimate of the Situation: The ET Hypothesis"
Stanton Friedman - 60 Years of Roswell
This year marks the 60th anniversary of the Roswell incident. As the original researcher on the Roswell crash, please join Stan in an engaging presentation of what 60 years of research and investigation has uncovered.
Timothy Good - UFOs and Military Intelligence
Timothy is the author of many UFO books including Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up and Beyond Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Security Threat. Timothy’s presentation is an exposé of the greatest secret on earth – the military and intelligence reports that prove UFOs exist and that UFOs remain a key military and intelligence problem – one demanding unprecedented security and deception.
Richard Dolan - The ET Presence on Earth
Richard’s follows up on his groundbreaking book UFOs and National Security with a closer look at the UFO cover-up and the implications of an ET presence on planet Earth. You will not want to miss this insightful and provocative talk from one of Ufology’s best.
Dr. Rudy Schild - University Response to UFOs
Harvard professor of Astrophysical Research and a good friend of the late Professor John Mack. Dr. Schild's has a unique ability to explain deep, current scientific theories in simple language.
Join Dr. Schild as he details his perspective on why a gap exists between mainstream science and Ufology.
Kathleen Marden - New Betty and Barney Hill Evidence
Kathleen was thirteen when on September 20, 1961, Betty Hill, Kathleen’ aunt, phoned her to report that, the previous evening, she and Barney had encountered a flying saucer in New Hampshire’s White Mountains. A primary witness to the evidence of the UFO encounter and the aftermath, Kathleen has intimate knowledge of the Hill’s biographical histories, personalities, and the never before published historical data pertaining to their sensational story.
Michael Nelson - Portage Ohio Case – New Evidence
On April 17, 1966 two Portage, Ohio police deputies chased a UFO for 86 miles across four counties and two states. Ridiculed by the Air Force, these deputies conducted their own investigation of the incident. Their investigation remained hidden for years until Michael, a Portage, Ohio deputy himself, uncovered the case file when cleaning out cold cases from the evidence room. This prompted Michael to conduct his own investigation which revealed some startling new facts including new physical evidence.
Sam Maranto - O’Hare and Tinley Park Sightings
Sam is the MUFON Illinois State Director and is the lead investigator on both the November 2006 sighting of a UFO over O’Hare Airport as well as the sightings of UFOs over Tinley Park, Illinois. Sam will detail what these investigations have uncovered to date.
Brad Sparks/Barry Greenwood - New Revelations on MJ12
The world of Ufology was turned upside down in 1984 when documents released allegedly by government insiders, detailed Operation Majestic-12, a secret organization founded in 1947 at the recommendation of Secretary of Defense James Forrestal and Dr. Vannevar Bush, Chairman of the Joint Research and Development Board. The goal of the group was to exploit everything they could from recovered alien/UFO technology. Brad and Barry will reveal new evidence that will call into question the very existence of Operation Majestic 12.
Robert Salas - Malmstrom Air Force Base Case
In 1967, Robert was stationed at Malmstrom Air Force Base as a Deputy Missile Combat Crew Commander (DMCCC) at a Minuteman Launch Control Facility (LCF) and was a first hand witness to UFOs overflying the base and the subsequent shut down by these UFOS of the entire nuclear missile battery. Hear his riveting account of this unprecedented and officially documented event.
2006 Symposium Proceedings
2006 MUFON International UFO Symposium Proceedings Abstracts
Kenneth Storch: 911 UFO: UFOs and Police Officers
Steve Reichmuth: The MUFON ‘UFO’ Weather Maps – A Year of Evidence In Review
Ronald Regehr: The Iranian UFO Encounter
Ruben Uriarte: Border Crossings of the Third Kind
Linda Moulton Howe: UFO Crash Retrievals – U.S. Government Policy of Denial in the Interests of National Security
Marshall Vian Summers: The Alien Agenda and the Ethics of Contact
Ted Phillips: The Physical Evidence for Unidentified Flying Objects
Carl Feindt: Physical Influences of a UFO on Water
David Marler: Triangular UFOs: A Detailed Analysis of the Historical Record
Ryan Wood: Big Proof: Examination of UFO Crashes Retrieval Cases
Brian Boldman: Angel Hair: Evidence of UFO Technology
2005 Symposium Proceedings
2005 MUFON International UFO Symposium Proceedings Abstracts
Scott Ramsey – “The Aztec Incident Revisited.”
The landing and recovery of an extraterrestrial craft near Aztec, New Mexico has been a controversy for nearly 58 years within the UFO community. The story at first reported by writer Frank Scully, appears in 1950 in his book Behind the Flying Saucers. This was the first hard cover book ever published on flying saucers for people wanting to know more about the subject that was relatively new to the America public. This article will look at the original dates, witnesses, claims of technology, and people involved, to present to you the facts known to this point.
Phyllis Budinger – “A Search for the Physical Evidence: Abductions.”
Extensive chemical analyses of physical traces from two well-known abduction events have been done. The physical traces are from an old encounter – the dress Betty Hill wore on the night of her abduction, and from a recent, ongoing series of events – material found in the hand of Stan Romanek after one strange episode. These analyses were done using state-of-the-art technology. The power of the analytical techniques and approach employed is emphasized. The results of the analyses are presented. These results will show something unusual happened to these people.
Roger Leir, MD – “2005 – The Newest Scientific Information in Non-Terrestrial Implant and Physical Evidence Research.”
The subject of UFOs and their occupants has turned the corner in that those who once questioned even the existence of these vehicles are now looking at the occupants and their reasons for visitation. It is also widely accepted by those of us in this area of research that there is seemingly an active campaign by non-terrestrial intelligences that abduct human beings for some purpose not fully understood by most researchers. We all have the scientific right to theorize but to follow the scientific method, we need to bring our theories into a laboratory setting and either prove or disprove their validity. Therefore, I must emphasize that in my opinion this has not been done so far by many researchers in this field. Perhaps this criticism may be harsh but it is truly my belief. I would also like to add that in my opinion the recipients of this untested information should run from the comments of any researcher who claims to have all the answers. During the past years I have expended a great deal of my time and personal money in trying to scientifically approach questions pertaining to Alien Abduction and Implants. This paper will discuss some of these efforts and conclusions to date.
Esen Sekerkarar – “Best Evidence from Turkey.”
There is no question that the history of the UFO sightings and the ET visitations are as old as the history of our planet. As the technology develops, we have the chance to put this reality on scientific foundations such as photographs, video footage, computer analysis and other data received from case studies. Just like the rest of the world, UFO sightings, ET encounters and abductions take place in Turkey. However, being a young “republic,” the history of the sightings and the UFO organizations differ from the ones in the United States. First-hand pilot reports, police footage and the involvement of the professional community are described in this paper.
Richard Dolan – “How UFO Secrecy has Damaged Modern Science and Society.”
Since 1947, the UFO phenomenon has consistently been disparaged by two leading institutions of American culture: what we may call mainstream media and the world of academia. The few exceptions to this have served primarily to puncture an otherwise wholesale uniformity of rejection. What does it say about one’s academic institutions, for example, when a reality of major importance is denied systematically for generations on end? What does it say about the nature one’s news media institutions when coverage of this phenomenon is typically restricted either to cultural jokes or at best shallow “what if they are out there” questions?
It appears nearly certain that UFO reality has involved the creation of a massive “black” infrastructure within and around the U.S. defense community. It appears likely that the money involved in the so-called “black budget” runs in the trillions – not billions of dollars, and that at least a significant portion of this money has gone into what we may call “classified ufological studies and activities.” Dolan agrees that the lies necessary to maintain UFO secrecy have more to do with the development and maintenance of privately held power than with public policy, and that the necessary manipulation of major media nodes and academic culture in general have crippled these institutions from being what most people have expected them to be.
Edgar Mitchell, Ph.D. – “My Vision for the Third Millennium.”
As one who has had the privilege of looking at this magnificent but fragile planet from afar, indeed, has been privileged to represent humanity in the exploration of our nearest planetary neighbor, I feel a strong obligation to share with all my earthbound neighbors the lessons I have learned from experience and the years that followed it.
Stanton Friedman – “Government UFO Lies.”
For almost 60 years the public has been hearing about flying saucers and then UFOs. Press coverage has ebbed and flowed, but polls have always shown a very high awareness score. Motion pictures, tabloids, and TV programs have picked up the slack with a mélange of fiction and some truth. Unfortunately, much of what we have been told by the “powers to be” has been false. Many different government agencies have shared in the misrepresentation and have provided outright LIES as well. These include the FBI, the CIA, the NSA, United States Air Force, etc. The press and certain other academic and supposedly scientific groups, such as SETI have often blindly accepted and promulgated nonsense without any effort to get at truth. Hopefully, the LIES presented in this paper will help cause these protectors of the public to do their jobs: seek and present truth.
Claude Swanson, Ph.D. – “The Rediscovery of Magic.”
Paranormal phenomena are often associated with UFO or ET contact experiences. These may include levitation by craft or occupants, telepathy, out-of-body experiences frequently associated with abductions, and psychokinesis or PK. Recent advances in parapsychology have made it possible to demonstrate and replicate some of these phenomena to rigorous scientific standards in the laboratory. The Princeton PEAR Lab, among others, has established the scientific reality of ESP, PK and Remote Viewing. These forces behave unlike anything known to science: They do not weaken with distance, they penetrate all barriers, and they can move forward and backward through time. Measurements have been made demonstrating the external reality of the “astral body” during OBE and Remote Viewing experiments. Scientists have learned to produce and accumulate subtle energy, also known as “chi,” which is the key to paranormal phenomena and which enhances the interaction between consciousness and matter. This may be the clue to how some of the “magic” of ancient times functioned. A new scientific revolution is underway. It will lead to a deeper understanding of UFOs and the contact phenomenon. It will expand the current scientific paradigm to include the paranormal, subtle energy, consciousness and spirit.
R. Leo Sprinkle, Ph.D. – “The ET Presence: Cons and Pros.”
This paper describes the “Cons” as the “confidence” people who try to con us into discounting or denying the ET Presence and the “Pros” as the “professional” people who profess the reality of the ET Presence. This paper then refers to the evidence of UFO activity and ET encounters that support the thesis that ETs have herded us throughout human history. Further, it raises the question: Are we humans former ETs whose souls have accepted the challenge – or chore – of living in a human body on Planet Earth?
Elaine Douglass – “Invisible UFOs: Case Reports and Videos Suggest Reality.”
This paper presents sighting reports, witness testimony, and a video, which combine to suggest that alien aircraft have the capability to become invisible. This paper examines reports dating from World War II to the present, which illustrate invisibility to radar, optical invisibility, and directional optical invisibility according to the angle of the observation. The paper also considers events associated with chemtrails and cattle mutilations, as well as abductee reports in which invisibility is inferred. In addition, the paper discusses a video, the 1989 Durea sequence, which portrays a craft transitioning into and out of an optically invisible state. The Durea sequence video will be shown with the spoken presentation of this paper at the 2005 MUFON Symposium. Finally, the paper examines a proposed technical mechanism to account for UFO invisibility, the bending of light in a gravitational field.
Alan C. Holt – “Prospects for Breakthroughs in Deep Space Transportation.”
Almost 60 years of research by many individuals and organizations have demonstrated that many Anomalous Aerial Phenomena (AAP) involve the occurrence, and/or use, of very advanced physics and technology, especially in new forms of aerial and space transport. In many cases, the physics and technology appears to be so advanced and unique that it will likely require us to greatly broaden our understanding of the physics of the universe, as well as our understanding of what we call matter and consciousness. AAP data which appears to provide the greatest insight into this new “multi-verse” physics and technology are briefly described and summarized. These anomalous effects can be studied in an integrated way to gain new insights, clues and technology/material innovations which can aid us in the development of highly advanced space transports.
Paola Harris – “Connecting the Dots: An International Perspective.”
International Journalist Researcher Paola Leopizza Harris will discuss how the Italian media, newspapers, TV, magazines handle the coverage of UFO related events. She will cover several of the most notable cases including the visits of Colonel Phillip Corso to Italy, the disclosure efforts of Monsignore Corrado Balducci and this year’s Italian coverage of the Travis Walton story on major prime time TV. From her early work with Dr. J. Allen Hynek to her current occupation of bringing researchers to Italy through Starworks Italia, Ms. Harris will explain the great importance of networking information worldwide to prepare humanity for disclosure.
Joan Woodward – “Animal Reactions to UFOs: A Preliminary Investigation from the Animal’s Perspective.”
Animal reactions are sometimes presented as further evidence of the reality of UFOs. In 1965, The UFO Investigator states, “All [these animals] saw something new and strange. Not being affected by official denials, they reacted normally – from fear.” The article goes on to say “The UFO-animals reports, therefore, should not be neglected. They are proof the UFOs do exist.”
2004 Symposium Proceedings
2004: "Unconventional Flying Objects: The Body of Technological Evidence"
John F. Schuessler - "Unconventional Flying Objects: The Body of Technological Evidence."
It is no longer necessary to refer to UFOs as unidentified. We have amassed sufficient evidence to show they are "unconventional," rather that "unidentified." UFOs are not airplanes, rockets, planets, weather balloons, space debris, ball lightning, remnants of comets or meteorites, or constructs of the imagination. We know this because a thorough study of the evidence in thousands of UFO cases has eliminated all of these things as explanations for UFOs. What remains is a huge reservoir of Unconventional Flying Object reports that defy explanation. Unfortunately, the evidence has been ignored, misrepresented or covered-up for so long that most people accept this as normal and no longer question it. We do have the evidence and we will discuss it based on the criteria given in McCormick's Handbook of the Law of Evidence.
Stephen Bassett - "Deception, Denial and Disclosure."
For the past ten years a growing political movement has targeted the politics of UFOs/disclosure. All levels of the media have received extensive materials on the subject. Former members of the U.S. military, former astronauts and many other government employees have been speaking privately and publicly in unambiguous terms regarding the extraterrestrial presence and a government cover-up. Each day the UFO/ET cover-up continues and each new revelation of abuse of power by this or that government agency further erodes the fundamental trust the American people hold in their government - and benchmarks for trust in government are at all time lows. If you truly wish to unite the country and begin a new era of cooperation, you must engage an issue of transcendent importance. That issue is at hand.
Grant Cameron - "Seeking a Checkmate Move: A Search for Conclusive Technological Evidence."
Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, your duty today will be to decide an important case. Your job will be to decide on the basis of all the evidence I will present if there is a case beyond a reasonable doubt that UFOs represent a technological phenomenon, and moreover, if it's someone else's advanced technology. Your job will not be an easy one. That is because evidence is treated differently in the UFO world that it is in the world at large. The standards are much higher.
Peter B. Davenport - "Using Multistatic Passive Radar for Real-time Detection of UFO's in the Near-Earth Environment."
The author proposes a system for the remote, real-time detection of UFO's in the near-Earth environment, using passive, multi-static, frequency-modulated (FM) radar. The system capitalizes on the use of multiple, time-synchronized radio receivers to capture high-frequency radio signals reflected from a target. The time-lapse between received signals, together with three-dimensional Doppler-shift analysis, permits calculation of target's location, velocity, acceleration, flight path, and other parameters, possibly to include target size estimation. Signal analysis of the reflected signal, combined with analysis of target characteristics, will permit discrimination between suspected UFO's, and targets of terrestrial origin, e.g. aircraft, satellites, space debris, meteor trails, upper atmospheric conditions, weather phenomena, migratory birds, the Moon, etc. One application proposed may allow detection of UFO's out to a range of at least 27,600 kilometers from the Earth's surface.
Deborah Lindemann C.H.T. - "Signatures of Extraordinary Technology in Abduction."
As I approach the twenty-year mark investigating UFO encounter cases, I continue to witness the extraordinary signature of abduction, written in the lives of hundreds of people I have worked with. The American Heritage Dictionary defines signature as, "A distinctive mark, characteristic, or sound indicating identity." This forensic blueprint shows up in a multitude of ways: physical trace evidence, unexplained technology, not to mention the profound emotional impact these encounters have upon individuals. Throughout the UFO encounter experience runs a common thread of anomalous experiences and evidence with unworldly implications. This common thread runs through all cultures, all ages of people and between people who have never met. I will present the tapestry of the alien signature in several categories, reflected in a number of important cases including the Stan Romanek case.
Budd Hopkins - UFO Abduction Cases: The Medical Evidence."
Among individuals reporting prior alien UFO abductions, three different kinds of physical aftereffects are often found within or upon their bodies:
1. The most commonly noted are surface lesions of two types: "scoop marks," shallow, oval depressions, usually found on an abductee's leg, and suggesting that layers of tissue have been systematically removed, and fine, straight-line cuts reminiscent of surgical incisions. Both types of lesions usually leaving lasting scars.
2. Radiological reports of small metallic objects - alleged implants - which occasionally appear in X-rays of abductees' skulls and are inaccessibly located.
3. A wide range of other unusual medical symptoms which occur immediately after an abduction experience and appear to have no acceptable medical causes. These anomalous symptoms include sudden, profuse bleeding from the bladder in males, the absence of a previously existing ovary in females, numerous "disappearing" pregnancies, and other difficult to explain medical conditions.
David Sereda - "Has NASA Made Contact With Extraterrestrial Intelligence?"
This is the deepest investigation and dialog ever made about some breakthrough footage what was filmed by NASA. This footage records high numbers of disc-shaped objects, ambiguously classified, and until now, unidentifiable as any known phenomenon. He shows proof of intelligent craft through the process of elimination of other plausible phenomena; fundamental principles of faster-than-light technology and corroborating evidence found on disc-shaped objects; links to the supposed spacecraft and an indentifiable star system.
Nick Redfern - "Flying Triangles' in British Airspace: Evidence of Advanced Technology."
In early 1993, a series of truly earth-shattering UFO encounters occurred in British airspace that went on to have a profound effect on high-ranking sources within both the Royal Air Force and the Ministry of Defense. More importantly, it was that single wave of encounters that ultimately convinced British military and defense personnel that the phenomenon was one that clearly demonstrated the presence of an advanced, high-performance technology. Some UFOs do indeed display evidence of advanced technology, not built by us and that the so-called Flying Triangle phenomenon is the latest and most significant example of that same advanced technology.
Ryan Wood - "Evidence for the Existence of TOP SECRET/MJ-12: A Forensic Examination of Leaked Classified Documents."
At the heart of the debate of Government complicity in the UFO cover-up at Roswell, and more broadly with highly credible UFO related activity, is the existence of a blue ribbon panel of military and scientific minds code-named Majestic 12 or MJ-12. For more than two decades there have been documents: some photocopies, some undeveloped film and some original papers that tell the detailed story of explicit involvement and extreme military and government secrecy toward UFOs. Not only are documents in the public domain, but living witnesses also corroborate the documents, the military procedures and the long-standing cover-up - which the vast majority of Americans believe.
Leslie Kean - "Combating Media Ridicule and Searching for Evidence on the 1965 Kecksburg Crash Case."
In May 2000, I published an in-depth story for the Sunday Boston Globe about the French COMETA report and the broader issue of UFOs and national security. My prior experience was as a widely published, print journalist and a producer and host for an investigative news program on KPFA Radio, a Pacifica station in Berkeley, CA. When I received an advance copy of the English translation of the COMETA report from a colleague in France, I recognized that the extraordinary conclusion reached by the distinguished authors was newsworthy, and that this report had potentially profound implications that needed to be addressed and made available to the public.
Paul Davids - "Profiles in UFO Courage."
The thesis of this highly visual presentation is the UFO disclosure has been like "time-release aspirin" - and that the media has been skillfully utilized be a relatively small group of courageous people, who at times risked ridicule and being discredited, as well as being targeted for onslaughts of debunking, in order to help the public assimilate the very controversial concept that "We Are Not Alone." My interest in the UFO field was propelled by a daylight flying saucer sighting in 1987 in close proximity, with my two children. It provided the motivation for my becoming executive producer and co-writer of the Showtime film ROSWELL, starring Kyle MacLachlan, Dwight Yoakam, and Martin Sheen. It also led to my conviction that excessive official secrecy on this issue is a negative and mistaken national policy.
John Greenewald, Jr. - "The U.S. Government's Present Day UFO Interest. The Black Vault Uncovers What the Government Doesn't Want You to See."
It has been over seven years now since I started what has now become the largest database in the world, outside of the U.S. Government itself. Many Internet users and television viewers worldwide have seen this site known as 'The Black Vault' grow beyond anyone's imagination. Archiving over 114,000 government documents, 20,000 historical photographs, a message forum with over 270,000 posts, and over 10,000 news articles, The Black Vault is by far one of the largest sites on the Internet.
Mutual UFO Network. All Rights Reserved.